Chapter 3 Introduction to Widgets

This part of the book explores the integration of JavaScript with R using the htmlwidgets package which focuses on libraries that produce a visual output, it is often used for data visualisation but is not limited to it.

As in future parts of this book, we mainly learn through examples, building multiple widgets of increasing complexity as we progress through the chapters. Before writing the first widget, we explore existing R packages that allow creating interactive data visualisations as this gives a first glimpse at we build in this part of the book. Then we explore JavaScript libraries that make great candidates for htmlwidgets and attempt to understand how they work to grasp what is expected from the developer in order to integrate them with R. Finally, we build upon the previous chapter to improve how htmlwidgets work with shiny.

The htmlwidgets package originates from the rCharts (Vaidyanathan 2013) package created in 2012 by Ramnath Vaidyanathan. It brought together a plethora of data visualisation JavaScript libraries, datamaps, highcharts, morris.js, and many more. Though no longer maintained rCharts ultimately paved the way towards a framework for interactive visualisations in R: two years later, in 2014, Ramnath and other prominent R users start working on htmlwidgets.

The objective of this chapter is to explore existing widgets available on CRAN, discover how they work, whilst focusing on their prominent features as we will learn how to implement those in our very own widget in the coming chapters.

3.1 Plotly package

The plotly (Sievert et al. 2021) R package is probably one of the first and the most popular widget built thus far; it has been downloaded from CRAN 4.9 million times at the time of writing this.

Plotly.js is a substantial library that provides over 40 chart types, including 3D charts, statistical graphs, and maps, all of which are available from the R interface, there is so much depth to plotly that there is an entire book on the topic.

FIGURE 3.1: plotly scatter plot

Plotly also has the ability to translate static ggplot2 (Wickham, Chang, et al. 2020) charts to interactive plotly charts with the ggplotly function.

FIGURE 3.2: Interactive ggplot2 with plotly

All plotly charts are initialised with the plot_ly function and work nicely with the magrittr (Bache and Wickham 2020) pipe %>%. This implies that (almost) every function expects a plotly object (the output of plot_ly) and returns a modified version of that object. The pipe makes code easier to read and more concise.

Plotly implements geoms in a similar fashion as ggplot2, functions that start in add_ add a layer to the plot (e.g.: add_lines, add_bars).

FIGURE 3.3: Multiple layers with plotly

3.2 DT package

The DT package (Xie, Cheng, and Tan 2021) is a wrapper for the DataTables jQuery plug-in which allows creating interactive tables from R data.frame objects.

FIGURE 3.4: Interactive table with DT

DT has grown very popular amongst shiny developers as it allows capturing server-side many of the users’ interactions with the table, such as the selected row.

DT package example

FIGURE 3.5: DT package example

3.3 Crosstalk

DT and plotly both fully support the crosstalk package (Cheng and Sievert 2021), a package to enable two widgets to communicate. In the example below, we use crosstalk to create a “shared dataset” that can be used to create 1) a table with DT, and 2) a scatter plot with plotly. Rows selected in the table are highlighted in the plot and vice versa.

The bscols function is just a convenience function that makes it easy to put the visualisation and table side-by-side.

DT and plotly with crosstalk

FIGURE 3.6: DT and plotly with crosstalk

3.4 Wrap-up

These are only two examples of widgets and how they can work together. But we hope this makes a compelling case for building such software as, in the remaining of this chapter, we learn how to build them, integrate them with crosstalk, shiny, and much more.

References

Bache, Stefan Milton, and Hadley Wickham. 2020. Magrittr: A Forward-Pipe Operator for R. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=magrittr.

Cheng, Joe, and Carson Sievert. 2021. Crosstalk: Inter-Widget Interactivity for Html Widgets. https://rstudio.github.io/crosstalk/.

Sievert, Carson, Chris Parmer, Toby Hocking, Scott Chamberlain, Karthik Ram, Marianne Corvellec, and Pedro Despouy. 2021. Plotly: Create Interactive Web Graphics via Plotly.js. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=plotly.

Vaidyanathan, Ramnath. 2013. RCharts: Interactive Charts Using Javascript Visualization Libraries.

Wickham, Hadley, Winston Chang, Lionel Henry, Thomas Lin Pedersen, Kohske Takahashi, Claus Wilke, Kara Woo, Hiroaki Yutani, and Dewey Dunnington. 2020. Ggplot2: Create Elegant Data Visualisations Using the Grammar of Graphics. https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ggplot2.

Xie, Yihui, Joe Cheng, and Xianying Tan. 2021. DT: A Wrapper of the Javascript Library Datatables. https://github.com/rstudio/DT.